Wednesday, 12 May 2010


Ilustración de E.C.

Scotland has a long and rich history that reaches back to before the Romans came to Britain. During this time, many things have happened that are mysterious or difficult to explain. Many places have stories about them that are hard, maybe even impossible to believe.

There are lots of stories, myths and legends about castles, ghosts, chapels, kings and so on. Pehaps one of the most well-known story about Scotland and one of the biggest argument is the existence of a sort of monster in Loch Ness, Big as a dinosaur, and not aggresive at all, as far as we know. a friendly monster like the one we have in the picture below. Click here or here if you want to see films taken from you tube.

Read chapter four in your book to see what other things you can find and try to look for similar stories in your region. You can ask your grandparents about legends and myths in your place, they are a great source of information. Try it


  1. In Galicia have lived celtas and romans too.Here also there are misterious things like Scotland.
    In Galicia we have an impressive romanic church called "CATEDRAL DE SANTIAGO" with religious chapels an of course with some magic storie.
    However,we have scary stories as "Romasanta" or "santa compaña" "meigas"...
    In Glicia there are less castles than Scotland,I think there are churches and monasteries.
    I don't know if Galicia has achieved to grow in a bad condition like Findhorn,since the floor here is rich or fertile.
    Samuel Rodríguez Novoa 4ºB

  2. Galicia is well-known because of its mysteries: witches, St. James (in Galician: Apóstolo Santiago), Holy Company (in Galician: Santa Compaña), water criatures, fairies, lycanthropes, ghosts... As Scotland, Galicia is plenty of strange criatures and unexplained mysteries which are part of our culture. Because of that, it's interesting to look for some information about them from time to time. Let's talk about some examples that I've found in some books (the books are indicated at the end of each explanation in capital letters).
    CARBUNCLES (in Galician: Carbuncos)
    Similar to Nessie, carbuncles are mythological water criatures that are common in Celtic cultures, like Galicia. Carbuncles are similar to snakes, and they have diamonds in their heads. They live in flooded cities or villages and in very deep wells. They're very famous in Ourense, where the people say that carbuncles foretell a flood with lots of death people. They're also popular because of the diamonds of their heads.
    CEBREIRO'S MIRACLE (in Galician: Miragre do Cebreiro)
    This history is similar to the history of Castle Fraser (Scotland), but in a more religious way. There was in Cebreiro (Lugo) a priest with faith problems: he couldn't understand how the bread and the wine could be transformed into the body and the blood of Jesus. One day, he was praying in his church, when he saw a slice of bread and a chalice of wine on the table. Suddenly, he saw how the bread was turning into meat and the wine was turning into blood. Inmediately, the priest started to bleed more and more, until his death. Nowadays, the chalice is still conserved, with the blood coagulums inside.
    HOLY COMPANY (in Galician: Santa Compaña)
    Let's talk about ghosts! The Holy Company is a procession of death people which is preceded by an alife person who is carrying a crucifix and a bucket full of blessed water. This person can't turn his/her face or leave the procession until he/she sees another person, who will be the next chosen person to carry the crucifix and the blessed water. Holy Company is one of the most well-known Galician legends around the world, and each country of the world has their own Holy Company, but with different characteristics.
    PONTEDEUME'S BRIDGE (in Galician: Ponte de Pontedeume)
    Last of all, I'm going to tell you a beautiful history about Pontedeume's Bridge that I like a lot: "This bridge was built by Lucifer in only two nights. One night, a young man called Ledan was drowned in the river Eume, because he was trying to cross the river to see his girlfriend, Minla. When she realised that her boyfriend was death, he promised Lucifer her soul, but he had to do a bridge over the river in only one night, because Minla wanted to look at her death boyfriend before he was buried. Lucifer accepted and tried to build the bridge, but he failed in his mission, and he built the bridge, but in two nights, so Minla could see her death boyfriend, but conserving her soul".
    Another history of Pontedeume's Bridge is: "Minla, a beautiful young woman of Pontedeume, was trying to cross the river Eume, but it was raining so much and the river was so deep that she couldn't cross it. Very angry, the woman started to blaspheme. Because of that, Lucifer appeared and he told her that he could help her to cross the river, because he could build a bridge in only one second. But first, she had to sign a document. The woman accepted very happy, she signed the document, and at that moment, the bridge appeared. Inmediately, Lucifer showed her the document: her soul was now of Lucifer. Very scared, she started to cry and ask for help. Virgin Maria decided to help her and fought against Lucifer. The result was that Virgin Maria won and the woman could go to her house happily".
    Diego Pazos Castro 4thB

  3. Thanks both of you for being the first to post the comments, please encourage your classmates to do the same.
    The teacher

  4. In this chapter of the book they tell us some stories about mysterious things in Scotland; after read the chapter I’m going to answer our teacher’s question. First able I’m going to talk about one story that is well-known in Galicia, and it’s the story about Holy Company.

    Holy Company is probably one of the most traditional mythical believes in Galicia, also in Asturias, and it’s a procession of death people (or their souls) that some nights visit some villages dressed with long white clothes. These souls predict the deaths of people and because of that, Galician are scared when they see this procession; in Galicia when people “see” them, they say that it’s a bad omen.

    The procession is beginning by a living person carrying a cross and a receptacle with holy water, and he/she is following by the death people or some souls with candles. The person that carries the cross can’t turn around or leave the procession before seeing someone who is alive, the next person who’ll carry the cross and the holy water.

    If you want to avoid the Holy Company you have to draw a circle on the ground and enter in it, or you can also hide your face because if he/she doesn’t see you, you won’t be the next on carrying the crucifix.

    Another mysterious story is the life of “Romasanta” (also known as the Galician Sacamentas), a tailor that began to sell unguent after his wife death. But it was only a covert because what he did in fact was killing nine people using his hands and his tooth, and then eating some parts of them. All assassinations were on Galicia, in nineteen century.
    He was caught on Nombela (Toledo), and he was tried on Allariz (Ourense). After a year of trial, he was tried guilty and he was doomed to die. But a French scientific sent a letter saying that Romasanta may have a psychological problem; he might be a lycanthrope. This letter saved him, but didn’t give him freedom; he had to be in prison because it wasn’t an excuse suffer lycanthrope.

    This story was used by some directors to make films like “The forest of the wolf” (1970) directed by Pedro Olea. It isn’t the fix story about Romasanta, but it’s one too similar. Here is a video about the film:

    Finally I’m going to talk about some Galician characters, giving his/her definition and some relevant pieces of information about them:

    • “Serpes”: in Galician mythology they are a mixture of a snake and a dragon with wings that take care of treasures, normally gold treasures. The use to eat people, dead or alive people, and to avoid this, the population who lives near them, feed them.

    • “Olláparos”: They are the Galician giants, their name say that they might be Cyclops.

    • “Pupieiriñas”: They are very little and they eat little pieces of bread. They live in the forest, near the fountains and the lakes. They have to discover children’s wishes and say them to all characters (like Noel or Santa) that give presents on Christmas.

    • “Píntega”: is the character of fire in Galician mythology, she is something like a salamander.

    • “Avenoiteira”: is the Galician bird that predicts deaths. Like a crow.

    • “Lavandeiras”: they are a group of women that each night wash they sins. If they see you or if you go near them, they will drown you.

    • “Abelurio / Cachano / Demachiño / Rabudo / Sucio / Resalgario / Xuncras”: these are some denominations of the Devil in Galicia.

    If you want to know more interesting dates, stories... about Galician mythology, you can look these web-pages:;wap2

    Andrea Patiño Vázquez 4º B

  5. I really love this chapter. It's fascinating because I like a lot talk about legends and history.

    First, the book taleks about the Rosslyn chapel. I think that it is very interesting for me because I love misteries. However, I don't know many legends in Galicia that are similar than this. Well, I think that, if we look for more information, this scottish legend is related with Galicia. I'm sure because in this legend appear Christopher Columbus, and one of his boats arrived to Baiona, in Pontevedra. In this legend, the flora and the fauna of the chapel are too similar (probably the same) than the animals and plants that appear in America in this centuries. I think that some information arrived to Galicia in one of these boats...

    Later, the book talks about the legend of Nessie and the Loch Ness. I don't know any similar legend because in Galicia there aren't many lakes and lagoons (they are a lot of reservoires and dams, that's why the legend would be too different), and there aren't many monsters. I only know a legend: The werewolf. It seems appear overcoat inside Galicia (interior zone and mountains).

    Later, it talks about castle legends. I need to ask my family because I don't know a lot and I'm not sure about some of them. Well, I start:

    ·I know a legend that talks about the Betanzos palace and the Vimianzo's castle. It would be that the two buildings are conected today, but there are a distance between them of 70 km!! And the Bentanzos palace is destroyed today as well. However, people think still that this legend is true...

    ·Not far away from there, other legend of tunnels appear. This legend talks about the Andrade's castle, in Pontedeume. It says that the Andrade family escaped in a war by a tunnel. This tunnel went from this castle to other tower in the middle of the village. Today, I don't belive them. This tunnel measures 4 km (minus long than the other tunnel), but it went under the sea, and I think that, in this time, it was impossible. However, the two towers exist...

    ·I know other legend. It was in Ferrol, in the Doniños lagoon. It says that there was a village called Doniños populated by bad people, but there was an honest house. One day, a man arrived to this village because he didn't had anywhere for sleeping. People didn't want to welcome him minus the man and the women of this honest house. At midnight, he called to the man and the women, they escaped and the village was inundated. This man was God...

    .I need to talk about the legend of Coruña. Here, but two milleniums ago, was Gerion, a bad giant. People called to a man for kill Gerion, and this man was Hercules. Hercules killed Gerion and he buried his head. On his head built a tall tower (in the start, he was an enormous torch), and he called them Hercules tower. He also created a village near to the tower, and he called it with the name of the first person who wanted to lived there. This person was a woman, and her name was Cruña...

    ·I also know other legend. In Coruña or Pontevedra was a place where there was a palace. One day, a magician arrived to the palace because he wanted to marry with the princess of the palace, but this princess didn't wanted. Suddenly, a enormous noise bursted out, and the palace was inundated, while the real family escaped, the king (the princess's father) tried to kill the magician, that was laughing in a rock, but he failed. The princess prayed to the fairs to became the magician in a bull, and she could. This bull didn't get to escape to the inundation, and today people listen the bull shouting under the waters...

    They are the legends that I know. I am thinking that it are very similar: tunnels, inundations, people who are escaping... They're also interesting.

    Fabio Veiga Rey, 4ºA (First part)

  6. It's time to talk about castles. Scotland and Galicia are like sisters because of castles. There are a lot in the two countries, and they are not different...
    Well, I know not many castles, but I have seen a lot of them.
    I have to name some of them: the Andrade's castle (the legendary castle), the Vimianzo's castle (the other castle of the other legend), and more like the Castro Candelas's castle, the Soberano's castle in Camariñas, the Peñafiel's castle in the Pindo mountains, the Vilalba's castle, the castle of Monforte de Lemos, etc.
    I have also name other galician typical construction: the "Pazos". I know some: the pazo of Vilaboa, the pazo of Meiras (where Franco has lived), the pazo of Soesto, the pazo of Traba...
    There are a lot of "pazos" in Galicia. I think that there are more "pazos" in Galicia than castles in Scotland.

    And, at the end of the chapter, it talks about Findhorn: a ecologic village. I don't know many stories similar to the history of this village. I only can to say that, in Galicia, there are people who live like in Findhorn. They live on the plants which they cultive and the animals that they look after. Agriculture and cattle breeding are very important in Galicia.

    Well, this is the end. I like a lot my comment. I think that I haven't got many mistakes and thanks for this chapter, I love it.

    Fabio Veiga Rey, 4ºA (Second part)

  7. Thanks Alberto for being the first again to post your comments for chapter four.Well-done!Nice and interesting legends about Galicia.I had never heard about them before!Glad to know you enjoyed reading through this chapter.I hope your partners enjoy it as well.
    The teacher.

  8. Chapter 4 (Mysterious Scotland)

    * Both in Scotland and in Galicia there are some mysterious places and buildings.

    In Scotland it´s famous “the Rosslyn Chapel”, built in the middle of the 12th
    century. This chapel is mentioned by Dan Brown in his book “The Da Vinci Code”.
    In Galicia there are also some mysterious places, like the “Pico Sacro”, the magic mountain of Galicia: people tell that a mythical queen lived in it. Besides, in Castro Armeá, a village near Ourense, it is the sanctuary of “Santa Mariña de Augas Santas”, a place of magic, religion and history.

    * The most famous Scottish lake is “Loch Ness”. From very early times, people tell that there is a monster in this lake; it´s called Nessie. However nobody have demonstrated the monster exists, up to now.

    In Galician rivers and lakes there aren´t mysterious animals. Although, from time to time, people tell that saw some strange animal, like a big snake or a crocodile. This happens in summer, principally. But the mysterious “monster” is never seen.

    * “The Fairy Flag of Dunvegan” is a Scottish legend about one of the chiefs of the MacLeods clan. This man married with a fairy, but the fairy went to the fairyland.
    In Galicia I don´t know stories about fairies. I think we aren´t anything similar.

    * In Scotland, over 2000 castles have been built since the 11th century. Some of them have dissappeared,but we still can visit some ones. The most famous Scottish castles are: “Airth Castle, Huntly Castle, Lauriston Castle and Traquair House”.
    In Galicia there are also some famous castles, like Andrade’s castle in Pontedeume, San Antón’s castle in Coruña …
    But the most typical building of Galicia is the “Pazo”. Actually, some of them are used like hotels and others can be visited.

    * In Scotland’s castles there are many legends about ghosts. I don´t know if ghosts really exist. Or … perhaps yes?.
    In Galicia there aren´t castles with ghosts, but there are other terriffic legends. Some of them are:
    - the “Santa Compaña”: it´s a group of dead people that walk by the forest.
    - Galicia is also a land of witches and superstitions.

    * Finally I think there isn´t a place like Findhorn in Galicia. However, today the ecological agricultura is arising in our land.

    Alberto Vázquez Rodríguez 4ºA Nº21

  9. Scotland has a long and rich history that reaches back to before the Romans came to Britain. During this time, many things have happened that are mysterious or difficult to explain. Many places have stories about them that are hard, maybe even impossible to believe.
    Galicia has a long history that reaches back to before the Romans came to Britain too. Galicians fought because they would'nt to be conquered by other countries.
    Galicia has got a lot of monuments with a history very long. One of these monuments it's the Santiago Cathedral, in Santiago de Compostela.
    There are lots of stories, myths and legends about castles, ghosts, chapels, kings and so on. Pehaps one of the most well-known story about Scotland and one of the biggest argument is the existence of a sort of monster in Loch Ness, Big as a dinosaur, and not aggresive at all, as far as we know. a friendly monster like the one we have in the picture below.
    Galicia has got lots of stories andmyths too. People says that if you are walking at night, a person can make the "sonrisa del payaso" to you.
    I don't kow more about these history.
    Manuel Martínez Iglesias 4ºA

  10. In Galicia there are many impressive monuments, such as: The Cathedral of Santiago, ''the Castros'', where they lived the Celts, the wall of Lugo, Lugo Roman Bridge, The Tower of Hercules in La Coruña and many more.
    Also in Galicia are legends and stories, some fear and others for young children. The best known legends are''La santa compaña'',''Meigas''... and some more.
    In every country there are monuments and sites as in Galicia or Scotland but I love the sights and history of Galicia.

    Borja Varela García 4ºA

  11. In Galician that Scotland. Now a said something of hear.
    For example
    -``La Santa Compaña´´ this is speak about a procession of souls in a sorrow than are boxing by a person life and if a person see, he die. ``La Santa Compaña´´ only appear in the darkness. She is that a ghosts.
    -``La Laguna de Cospeito´´ is about a poor men than look house for sleep one night, but anybody help he. Up to one family help he. Next day all the people bad with him disappear and the men too.
    -``La Mujer Lobo´´ is a women than your father said than go to eat neat with the wolfs, she go and she disappear for ever.
    It have more of mysterious but I only put something.

    Ana Cepeda Cardona 4B

  12. Sorry for the mistake I made in my previous comment.It should have been addressed to Fabio but I wrote Alberto instead of Fabio.
    As for the last comments on chapter 4, I wanted to thank Alberto, Mauel & Borja for making them.They're interesting and nice!I hope your partners go on a little further & make some more, though I'm aware of how many exams you have got now.
    The teacher

  13. In Galicia are very historys and legends because It`s very funny. I think that the most important legend is "La Santa Compaña", because It`s very old and It´s very funny. The others historys or legend: "Meigas", "La Mujer Lobo"...
    Galicia has a big monuments. I think that the most important is "La Catedral de Santiago" because It`s very old. The others monuments: "La Muralla de Lugo", "Los Castros", "La Torre de Hércules"...
    The romans build the Cathedral of Santiago when they live d here. The Celtics build the Castros too. But the Castros was destroyed.Galicia`s historys are the most funny the all world. Because I like life here.

    Santiago Sardiña 4ºB

  14. Galicia has got a long history, and we have many important remains of this time like “The Saint James’s cathedral” (La Catedral de Santiago), “Los Castros”, “The Lugo’s Wall” (La muralla de Lugo) and others important monuments.

    In Galicia we have got a lot of legends and mysterious like the Holy Company (la Santa Compaña) or the witches, they are the most famous Galician mysteries, but we have others mysteries too, like de fairies, ghosts or water creatures.

    Now, I’m going to tell you a legend about Galicia, her name is “The godparents’ bridge”. The legend say: If a woman has a lot of problems for have a baby, she has to go to Arnelas’ bridge and she need has to do a rite. At twelve o'clock, the first man that walks around the bridge has to throw water in the woman’s belly. Later, the woman’s family has to invite to everybody that walk around the bridge to have dinner in their house, and the foot that they don’t eat they have to throw at the Umia’s River.

    Laura Graña 4ºB

  15. In galicia we have a lot of legends the most fomous is the legend of the `Holy Company´.This is a group of spirits that travel for the paths looking for the people that will dead this night,the holy company diappeard when the electric lights appeard in our roads.A lot of our legends are of our celtic tradition,in the east of Galicia right in a lake of o Courel mountain range there is a celtic legend the legend talk about a princess that was imprision for a dragon or something similar dawn the water other legend is the leged that say there was a old city dawn the Corrubedo´s dunte this city is dawn the dune beacause when a traveler was despise this travaler was the Maria Virgin and God who punish buries the city
    Alexandre Estalote 4thB

  16. In Galicia, who have carries the waters of the Miño is atually the Sil and Miño gets the fame. Be true or not legends about the river Miño. One legend tells of the Xacios are amphibians in human form that habit the waters of the Miño. These Xacios can live perfectly well in the wells od the Miño and on land. The generate many stories that told about in the villages through which the river passes. Legend has it that Xacios are both male or female beings of incredible beauty seducing humans crawl to the river which kills them.

    In Galicia the most known mythology is of the Santa Compaña is a procession of dead from midnight walks the roads of a village. His mission is to visit all those houses in which shortly there will be a death.

    One of the typical Galician superstitions is that of Yan-I-Tan Gant in Fisterre. It is a kind of demon that at night carrying a candle in each finger. Is said to contain the flames his life. To kill is to turn off. Is said that to keep open flames too, trapping the unwary walkers and steals their body heat, leaving them to die of deadly cold. If the walker reaches a miracle of survival, Yan-Tan-Gan I will look for and pursue him to get rip off all the heat of the body and kill him.

    Fátima Rial 4ºB

  17. I believe nessie is real!!!!!!!!!!